One playbook for being counted while protesting: 1897 Kūʻē Petitions Protesting Annexation
- UNITY: Coalition-building (Hui Aloha ʻĀina and Hui Kālaiʻāina)
- COHESION: Mass Meeting called (hālāwai makaʻāinana)
- ONIPA’A and MANA’O: James Kaulia defined the terms of battle: brain-against-brain (battle of ideas)
— “Do not be afraid, be steadfast in aloha for your land and be united in thought. Protest forever the annexation of Hawaiʻi until the very last aloha ʻāina [lives]!”
- MANA’O: David Kalauokalani explains to the people what Annexation actually means practically:
— complete giveaway of the entire nation’s assets to the U.S.
— U.S. law would not extend to the Hawaiian Islands, but the Congress of the U.S. would decide how Hawaiʻi was to be governed.
- CONVERT TO ACTION: Converting people to achievable immediate action: petition (draft approved by the crowd)
— sent volunteers to all islands, and collected 21,000 signatures “Petition Against Annexation” in one month!
— another petition to restore the Queen collected 17,000 signatures at the same time
— population est. of Kanaka Maoli was about 40,000
- KIA’I: 4 trusted delegates sent w/petitions to D.C. to present to congress
— met with the Queen on tactics for presenting (united message)
— they were told their trip was a waste of time, already get 58 pro Treaty of Annexation, 2 more needed
— by the time they left, only 46 votes pro-treaty
- Treaty of Annexation vote FAILED to pass 1898. Never did pass, only the Newlands Resolution.
- The will of the people are now in the historical record.
The Kūʻē Petition effort served as a practical instrument for effective representative resistance, suited for the particular needs of the time and place. We find ourselves in 2015 and must meet the challenge right now! Find a way to be counted independently, and use that for our united goal: Aloha Aina!